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Nobel Laureate Synthetic Diamonds of the academic misconduct: a sharp key

  • Source:Www.boreway.com
  • Release on :2016-10-24
    DiamondsAnd carbon are natural minerals. Diamond is seen in the cooling of the crater, is generally crystal clear (pink or yellow-green rare) massive, angular, hard. Above all, diamonds are very rare, with mass units of carat (1 carat = 0.2 g). Because the crystal clear, not easy to damage and rare features, diamond priceless, it is the symbol of wealth, and sometimes even and love can be equated. Today, we know that almost all the properties of diamond are taken extreme, such as its thermal conductivity of the largest (to do high-power components of the heat sink components, diamond specific heat but the development of solid quantum theory of the key power), the maximum modulus of elasticity (The substitution of a carbon atom in the diamond with a nitrogen atom may take another carbon atom, the electron state of the impurity-hole pair is said to be entangled and can be used to make quantum computers), and so on. In contrast, the formation of large-scale coal mines, reserves at every turn to 100 million tons. Carbon does not Yang, no shape, dark, a rub black. Charcoal looks good in the graphite, pan-bright metallic color. According to solid-state physics, graphite is semi-metal or indirect band gap semiconductor, the energy gap is -0.04 eV, so conductive. Graphite is layered structure, easy cleavage to leave debris. It is conceivable that carbon (graphite), although there are important applications, such as fire, as a pencil lead and battery electrodes, its worth has never been too high. In 1772 Lavoisier (Antoine Lavoisier) burning diamond awareness of the diamond is carbon before the carbon never thought to have this rich diamond relatives. Today, if you dare to a lady said her diamond ring diamond is your home fireball, she will directly to the diamond ring fell to your face.
    Diamond, Western, in addition to diamond, also known as adamas, αδάμας, meaning not bad. I guess, Chinese King Kong is not bad and αδάμας so consistent estimates are from Sanskrit. King Kong is not bad for the chemist of the character is not convinced that acid bath alkaline bubble can not shake after the diamond (in fact not so evil, diamond iron, the loss of the diamond), the French chemist Lavoisier thought of the fire (Is it too inspired by the story of Laojun and Sun Wukong?). In 1772, Lavoisier with a cascade of two large lens to the sun gathered to a diamond, found that diamond into a wisp of smoke, fly. Later, the British Tainan (Smithson Tennant) repeated the Lavoisier experiment, and the diamond and graphite together burn, and then burn the smoke through the lime water, in 1797 established the diamond and graphite in the chemical completely Is a thing. Their worlds apart, even just becauseCarbon atomArrangement of different ways.
   

2 point of carbon into the temptation of diamond

Soon after the combustion reaction proved that the diamond was charcoal, the French chemist Guyton de Mouveau was said to convert the diamond directly into graphite in 1799, and that the diamond and charcoal had been undoubtedly one. The diamond to burn smoke and directly into graphite, is the behavior of the prodigal son, people can not help but shook his head. But if in turn can turn graphite into diamond, that is how exciting ah, the ladies on the street can be worn with diamond jinjin diamond ring. The historian of science may not pay much attention to is that the point of graphite into diamond, but more than the stone into the gold of the cause of the temptation of the former scientists and the promotion of science and the latter, no less.

In order to promote science and grab wealth, many scientists engaged in the cause of graphite into diamond. In 1880, the British Hannay (J. B. Hannay) declared that the paraffin, bone oil and lithium metal into the steel pipe calcined to obtain the diamond particles. This work has been highly praised and sought after by other scientists, but it was found that the results can not be repeated Hannay, this method simply can not get the diamond. However, the enthusiasm of scientists will not have the slightest impact, more people are engaged in this great cause, more thinking and methods in different laboratories were one by one test. 

3 Mo Wansan successful synthesis of diamond

French chemistMowasan (Henri Moissan, 1852-1907) also joined the dream of graphite into a diamond team. Mo Wassan is a great chemist, due to the separation of elemental fluorine compounds obtained 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Mawasan had a great interest in diamond, in 1893 the natural meteorite carbonized silicon (SiC) mistaken for diamonds, so that natural silicon carbide is now known as moissanite (today, still some or no intention or Deliberately SiC as a diamond or other new silicon carbide). Mo Wassan thought, want to convert graphite into diamond, high pressure is a necessary condition. He noted that there can be carbon particles in the molten iron, if the rapid cooling of hot metal temperature, the local strain of stress may be able to achieve the conversion of graphite pressure conditions in order to obtain the diamond. It should be said that this idea is very correct, with the Fund today jargon, called the technical route clear and reasonable.

Mowasang happens to be an expert in electric arc furnaces. In order to achieve high temperatures (~ 3500 ° C), Mawasan improved the EAF and personally smelted the molten iron with an electric arc furnace (Figure 4). In 1893, Mo Wassan in the molten iron carbon system after cooling, after pickling, access to the diamond particles.

In this case,4 can not tell the truth

Mo Wassan in the realization of the synthetic diamond, but did not put his synthesis technology into the production stage, which is very strange from the vulgar profit perspective. However, in the beginning we did not consider too much, because Mo Wansan is indeed a wide range of interests and can be in the broad scientific field gallop the scientist, he has too much chemical research direction to display their talents. In 1906, Mo Wassan won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and he beat the opponent is the famous Mendeleev.

However, those who follow the technical path of the synthesis of Mo Wansan diamond has nothing to get people have become increasingly impatient. In 1907, after the death of Mo Wassan, these people become a bit impatient impatience. Confirmed and repeated Mo Wassan's test turned to "falsification", and perhaps some people directly to the face of the question thrown to the widow of Mawasan. Later, Mo Wansan's widow is really annoying, and finally admitted to Mo Wansan's assistant because of the endless repeated experiment is really tired, but also with the Mo Wassan account, secretly (home? Room?) Diamond particles mixed (the author guess) cracked with carbon scrap iron scraps in the mooring mawasan. In other words, Mo Wassan did not know he was cheated by the assistant.

To be a simple arithmetic, from 1893 to obtain the diamond to 1907 Mo Wansan died, the middle is about 14 years. 14 years, ah, the scientific significance of synthetic diamond and the resulting fame and fortune, Mowasan really be able to ignore this experiment? Even if he does not care about fame and fortune, those who care about fame and fortune and failed to obtain diamonds and the scientists did not enough to meet him and thus face to face? Even if the assistant has been doing experiments Mongolia, his assistant which go get so many diamonds? It is hard to convince an unnamed assistant to blame the big scam.

The lesson of this story is that blaming students for academic misconduct or low-level researchers has always been a routine in academia.As a student or a low-level researchers, even into the career of hardships, not for others to counterfeit. For othersTake the chestnut fire, Chestnut is not you, that the fire is your hand.